科学家沸腾了!刚刚发现早期黑洞形成“捷径”!1.5亿年就完工

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Black holes, the fearsome existence of these universes, each occupy a land in the universe, madly engulfing the "residents" around them. But the process of engulfing is extremely slow, which gives us the illusion that it takes a lot of time to support a black hole. In fact, scientists have just discovered that "making" black holes can be very fast, and the early universe will be completed in as little as 150 million years!

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Yes, you can imagine that the largest black hole in the universe is formed in an instant. Of course, this moment is based on the scale of the universe, and it is still far from human beings.

About 13 billion years ago, when our universe was still a chaotic start-up, the universe suddenly had a creativity, producing supermassive black holes in the left, right, and middle directions of the universe.

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When astronomers observe quasars, they can still observe these relics of the early universe. The quasars are very large and very bright, and scientists believe they are powered by old black holes that are billions of times larger than the Earth's sun. However, the existence of these ancient objects constitutes a problem in and of itself. Many quasars seem to have originated in the first 800 million years of the universe, far before any star can grow larger or older enough to collapse under its own mass, explode into supernovae and form black holes, that is, quasar formation is more than black hole early.

So, the question is, where did these old black holes in the space-time structure come from? According to a popular theory, it may be related to the large amount of gas that is engulfed in the universe.

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xx然后,研究人员运行了一个计算机模型,证明在早期宇宙中,通过简单地将大量气体聚集到重力束缚云中,可以形成一些超大质量黑洞。研究人员发现,在几亿年内,足够大的云将在其自身质量下崩溃,形成一个小黑洞,不需要经历超新星的过程。

因此,这些理论对象被科学家称为直接坍塌黑洞(DCBHs)。 DCBH的一个决定性特征是它们必须在宇宙的早期非常迅速地形成。根据研究,早期宇宙黑洞的形成只有大约1.5亿年,并且在此期间它迅速增长。在1.5亿年的早期形成的黑洞足以使质量提高10,000倍。

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那么气体云如何变成黑洞呢?根据早期的一项研究,这种转变需要两个不同的星系:一个是形成大量新恒星的超新星超新星,另一个是一堆弥散恒星气体。随着新恒星在这个繁忙的星系中形成,它们会发出恒定的热辐射,清洗附近的星系并防止那里的气体融入自己的恒星。科学家们已经发现,在数亿年中,没有恒星的气体云可以吸收如此多的物质,使其在自身重量下坍塌,形成一个直接跳过恒星舞台的黑洞。不久之后,这个“种子”黑洞可能通过迅速吞噬附近星云的物质而达到超质量状态,这可能产生了我们今天看到的巨大的类星体。

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2007年,大质量恒星N6946-BH1的亮度是太阳的100万倍。到2015年,它消失得无影无踪。天文学家认为,这是罕见的证据,证明一颗恒星在没有成为超新星的情况下坍缩成黑洞。

根据科学家的猜测,在宇宙形成的前8亿年中,这可能存在于宇宙中的恒星和其他黑洞过于拥挤之前。但是在大爆炸后10亿年后,宇宙中可能产生了太多的背景辐射,因此超大质量黑洞难以找到足够的气体吸收并继续其指数增长。这就解释了为什么宇宙中某个质量和光度以上的黑洞数量会急剧下降。

尽管DCBH仍处于理论研究阶段,但一些天文学家认为,这种可能性将为我们提供一个关于黑洞形成的新视角。